| A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X
acknowledgmentthe act of going before a qualified officer (e.g., Clerk) and declaring the validity of the document. The officer certifies same, whose certification is known as the acknowledgment
acquitthe act of freeing a person from the charge of an offense by means of a decision, verdict or other legal process; to discharge
actiona civil judicial proceeding whereby one party prosecutes another for a wrong done or for protection of a right or prevention of a wrong; requires service of process on adversary party or potentially adversary party
actual place of businessAny location that the defendant, through regular solicitation or advertisement, has held out as its place of business (sec. 308.6 CPLR).
ad damnumclause of a pleading alleging amount of loss or injury
adjournmenta temporary postponement of the proceedings of a case until a specified future time
adjudicateto hear or try and determine judicially
adversaryAn opponent. The defendant is the plaintiff's adversary.
adversary systemthe system of trial practice in the U.S. and some other countries in which each of the opposing, or adversary, parties has full opportunity to present and establish its opposing contentions before the court
affiantone who swears to an affidavit; deponent
affidavita sworn or affirmed statement made in writing and signed; if sworn, it is notarized
affinityRelated by marriage; family relation from one's spouse's family.
affidavit of servicean affidavit intended to certify the service of a writ, notice, or other document
affirman act of declaring something to be true under the penalty of perjury by a person who conscientiously declines to take an oath for religious or other pertinent reasons
affirmationA solemn and formal declaration under penalties of perjury that a statement is true, without an oath.
affirmedUpheld, agreed with (e.g.,The Appellate Court affirmed the judgment of the City Court).
allegationthe assertion, declaration, or statement of a party to an action, made in a pleading, setting out what the party expects to prove
allegeTo assert a fact in a pleading.
alternate jurora juror selected as substitute in case another juror must leave the jury panel
amicus curiaeA Friend of the Court. A non-party to a proceeding that the Court permits to present its views.
annulto make void, as to dissolve the bonds of marriage
answera paper submitted by a defendant in which he/she responds to and/or denies the allegations of the plaintiff
appeala proceeding to have a case examined by an appropriate higher court to see if a lower court's decision was made correctly according to law
appearancethe participation in the proceedings by a party summoned in an action, either in person or through an attorney
appellantthe party who takes an appeal to a higher court
appelleethe party against whom an appeal is taken
arbitrationthe submission voluntarily or involuntarily of a disputed matter to selected persons and the substitution of their award or decision for the judgment of a court or its confirmation by the court as a judgment of the court
argumenta reason given in proof or rebuttal
at issuewhenever the parties to a suit come to a point in the pleadings which is affirmed on one side and denied on the other, they are said to be "at issue"
attachmentThe taking of property into legal custody by an enforcement officer (see specialty section: Recovery of Chattel).
attestationthe act of witnessing an instrument in writing at the request of the party making the same, and subscribing it as a witness
attorney of recordattorney whose name appears in the permanent records or files of a case
awardA decision of an Arbitrator. back to top
bailthe security given (or posted) to ensure the future appearance of a defendant
bar1. Prohibit - to bar the prosecution of an action. 2. The members of the legal profession.
benchThe Judge's seat or the judge, himself/herself, (e.g., the attorney addressed the bench)
bifurcated triala case in which the trial of the liability issue in a personal injury or wrongful death case is heard separate from and prior to trial of the damages in question
bill of costsA written statement of the itemized taxable costs and disbursements
bill of particularsfactual detail submitted by a claimant after a request by the adverse party which details, clarifies or explains further the charges and/or facts alleged in a pleading
briefa written or printed document prepared by the lawyers on each side of a dispute and submitted to the court in support of their arguments - a brief includes the points of law which the lawyer wished to establish, the arguments the lawyer uses, and the legal authorities on which the lawyer rests his/her conclusions. back to top
calendara schedule of matters to be heard in court
calendar callthe calling of matters requiring parties, or their attorneys, to appear and be heard, usually done at the beginning of each court day
captionin a pleading, deposition or other paper connected with a case in court, it is the heading or introductory clause which shows the names of the parties, name of the court, number of the case on the docket or calendar, etc.
case filethe court file containing papers submitted in a case
cause of actiongrounds on which a legal action may be brought (e.g., property damage, personal injury, goods sold and delivered, work labor and services).
certified copyCopy of a document signed and certified as a true copy of an original by the Clerk of the Court or other authorized persons (e.g., lawyer).
certificate of readinessa document attesting that the parties in a lawsuit are ready to go to trial
certifyto testify in writing
certioraria proceeding in the state Supreme Court under Art. 78 of the CPLR to review the decisions or actions of a public official or body, as in a tax certiorari matter, a review of the tax assessed challenge an exception taken to a juror before he/she is sworn challenge for a challenge based on a legally specified reason
change of venuethe removal of a suit begun in one county or district to another county or district for trial, though the term may also apply to the removal of a suit from one court to another court of the same county or district
charge to juryin trial practice, an address delivered by the court to the jury at the close of the case instructing the jury as to what principles of law they are to apply in reaching a decision
chattelarticle of personal property
citation1) summons to appear; 2) reference to authorities in support of an argument
clerk's extracta summary of a trial which is written by a clerk
clerk's minutesnotes, which are taken by a clerk, of events that occurred in court
commissioner of jurorsa person in charge of summoning citizens for jury duty
commitmentan order to commit a person to the custody of a sheriff, commissioner of corrections, or mental health facility
common lawthe body of law which originated in England and upon which present day U.S. law is based
compensatory damagesreimbursement for actual loss or injury, as distinguished from exemplary or punitive damages
complaintthe initial pleading in an action formally setting forth the facts and reasons on which the demand for relief is based
condemnationsee eminent domain
consanguinityRelated by blood.
conservatorone who is appointed by a court to manage the affairs of a protected person
consolidated actiontwo or more actions involving a common question of law or fact may be consolidated by the court; the actions then are merged, becoming one action with one title, and they result in one verdict and one judgment
contempt of courtan act or omission tending to obstruct or interfere with the orderly administration of justice or to impair the dignity of the court or respect for its authority
consolidateA joining of two or more actions to be tried together.
contested actionan action which involves disputed issue(s) of fact or law
contracta legally enforceable agreement between two or more persons or parties (oral or written)
corroborateto strengthen; to add weight by additional evidence
costsThe statutory sum awarded to the successful party when a judgment is entered. (Section 1901 all Court Acts.)
counselLawyer or attorney.
counterclaim1. In civil actions, a claim brought by a defendant against the plaintiff for an unlimited amount of money. 2. In small claims/commercial claims, a claim brought by a defendant against the plaintiff for an amount not to exceed the maximum monetary jurisdiction allowed in the small claims/commercial claims court.
court of limited jurisdictionA City Court, District Court or other court that has jurisdiction only over actions authorized by law.
court reportera person who transcribes by shorthand or stenographically takes down testimony during court proceedings
crossclaimclaim litigated by co-defendants or co-plaintiffs against each other and not against a party on the opposite side of the litigation
cross- examinationquestioning by a party or his attorney of an adverse party or a witness called by an adverse party back to top
damagesMonetary compensation or indemnity for wrong or injury caused by the violation of a legal right. 1. Compensatory damages - Reimbursement for actual loss or injury. 2. Exemplary damages - Monetary award by way of punishment for injury caused by aggravated circumstances or malice, in addition to compensation for the injury. 3. Punitive damages - Monetary compensation awarded in excess of ordinary damages, as punishment for a gross wrong.
date-stampthe stamping on a document of the date it is received
decisionthe determination reached by a court in any judicial proceeding, which is the basis of the judgment
declaratory judgmentone fixing rights of parties without ordering anything to be done
decreea decision or order of the court - a final decree is one which fully and finally disposes of the litigation; an interlocutory decree is a provisional or preliminary decree which is not final
defaulta "default" in an action of law occurs when a defendant omits to plead or otherwise defend within the time allowed, or fails to appear at the trial
defendantthe party being sued or the party accused of committing the offense charged
deliberationthe process by which a panel of jurors comes to a decision on a verdict
de novoFrom the beginning, a new trial.
deponentOne who testifies under oath to the truth of facts.
depositionsworn testimony of a witness
direct examinationthe first interrogation of a witness by the party on whose behalf the witness is called
directed verdictan instruction by the judge to the jury to return a specific verdict
discovery (or disclosure)a proceeding whereby one party to an action may be informed as to facts known by other parties or witnesses
dismissaltermination of a proceeding for a procedurally prescribed reason
dismissal with prejudiceAction dismissed on the merits which prevents renewal of the same claim or cause of action.
dismissal without prejudiceAction dismissed, not on the merits, which may be re-instituted.
disposethe act of terminating a judicial proceeding
dispositionthe result of a judicial proceeding by withdrawal, settlement, order, judgment or sentence
dissolution of marriagethe effect of a judgment of dissolution of marriage is to restore the parties to the state of unmarried persons
docketa document which summarizes a case
domicilethat place where a person has a true and permanent home - a person may have several residences, but only one domicile back to top
easementright held by one person to use the land of another for a special purpose
eminent domainthe power to take private property for public use by condemnation, i.e., the legal process by which real estate of a private owner is taken for public use without the owner's consent, but upon the award and payment of just compensation
enjointo require a person, by writ of injunction from a court of equity, to perform or to abstain or desist from some act
equitable action (equity matter)an action which may be brought for the purpose of restraining the threatened infliction of wrongs or injuries, and the prevention of threatened illegal action; case in which payment of money damages will not be adequate compensation
equitable distributionthe power to distribute equitably upon divorce all property legally and beneficially acquired during marriage by husband and wife or either of them, whether legal title lies in their joint or individual names
estopto stop, bar, or impede
estoppela rule of law which prevents a person from alleging or denying a fact, because of his/her own previous act
et alan abbreviation of et alia meaning "and others"
et anoAnd another.
evidencea form of proof or probative matter legally presented at the trial of an issue by the acts of the parties and through witnesses, records, documents, concrete objects, etc., for the purpose of inducing belief in the minds of the court or the jury
eviction, warrant ofLegal mandate authorizing an enforcement officer to remove persons and their personal property from their premises.
examination before trial (EBT)a formal interrogation of parties and witnesses before trial
execution(1) the performance of all acts necessary to render a written instrument complete, such as signing, sealing, acknowledging, and delivering the instruments (2) supplementary proceedings to enforce a judgment, which, if monetary, involves a direction to the sheriff to take the necessary steps to collect the judgment
exemplificationAn official transcript of a document from public records, made in a form to be used as evidence and authenticated or certified as a true copy, (e.g. exemplification of a judgment).
exhibita paper, document or other article produced and exhibited to a court during a trial or hearing and, on being accepted, is marked for identification or admitted in evidence
ex partea proceeding, order, motion, application, request, submission etc., made by or granted for the benefit of one party only; done for, in behalf of, or on application of one party only
expungethe authorized act of physically destroying information, in files, computers or other depositories back to top
fair preponderanceLevel of proof in a civil action; more than half; more convincing.
feea fixed charge for service rendered on behalf of court
fiduciarya person or institution who manages money or property for another, and who must exercise a standard of care in such management activity imposed by law or contract
findingthe court's or jury's decision on issues of fact
finea sum imposed as punishment for an offense
first paperPaper instituting the action (e.g., Summons, Motion, Infants's Compromise).
foreclosurea legal proceeding that bars or extinguishes right
forepersona member of a jury, usually the first juror called and sworn, or a juror elected by fellow jurors, who delivers the verdict to the court
forumA judicial tribunal or a place of jurisdiction. A meeting for discussion.
full faith and creditA requirement of the U.S. Constitution that the records and judicial proceedings of one state shall have the same effect in courts of other states with the same jurisdiction. back to top
garnishto attach a portion of the wages or other property of a debtor to secure repayment of the debt
garnisheeA person who owes a debt to a judgment debtor, or a person other than the judgment debtor who has property in his/her possession or custody in which a judgment debtor has an interest
guardian ad litemperson appointed by a court to represent a minor or incompetent for purpose of some litigation back to top
habeas corpus"You have the body." - the name given a variety of writs whose object is to bring a person before a court or judge - in most common usage, it is directed to the official or person detaining another, commanding him/her to produce the body of a person detained so the court may determine if such person has been denied his/her liberty without due process of law
hearinga preliminary examination where evidence is taken for the purpose of determining an issue of fact and reaching a decision on the basis of that evidence
hearsaya type of testimony given by a witness who relates not what he/she knows personally, but what others have told the witness, or what the witness has heard said by others; may be admissible or inadmissible in court depending upon rules of evidence
hung jurya jury whose members cannot reconcile their differences of opinion and thus cannot reach a verdict back to top
impanelingthe process by which jurors are selected and sworn to their task
impleaderAn addition of a third party to an action by the defendant.
in camerain the judge's chamber out of the presence of the jury and the public
incompetencylack of legal qualification or fitness (physical, intellectual or moral fitness) to discharge a legally required duty or to handle one's own affairs; also relates to matters not admissible in evidence
indemnitySecurity against loss or damages, exemption from penalty or liability, amount paid as compensation under an indemnity agreement.
index numbera number issued by the county clerk, which is used to identify a case - in civil matters there is usually a charge
individual assignment system (IAS)a system, established for all civil actions and proceedings heard in Supreme and County Court, which provides for the continuous supervision of each action and proceeding by a single judge (NYS)
indorsed complaintA statement of the nature and substance of the cause of action, for money only, which indicates the amount of the claim. It may be set forth upon the summons or attached to it.
INFANTAn individual who has not attained the age of eighteen (18).
infant's compromisea civil proceeding or motion for obtaining court approval of the settlement of an infant's claim
injunctiona court order for a party to stop doing or to start doing a specific act
inquesta proceeding which usually is a limited non-jury trial for the purpose of fixing the amount of damages where the plaintiff or defendant alone introduces testimony.
in reIn the matter of; concerning.
in remRegarding the right or title to property.
inter aliaAmong other things.
interlocutoryprovisional; temporary; not final - refers to orders and decrees of a court
interpleaderaction by which one having possession of an article or fund claimed by two parties may compel them to litigate the title between themselves, instead of with him/her
interpretera person sworn at a judicial proceeding to translate oral or written language
interrogatorieswritten questions propounded by one party and served on an adversary, who must provide written answers thereto under oath
intestatea person who dies without a will back to top
joint trialtwo or more actions involving a common question of law or fact may be joined by court order for trial - the actions are not merged but remain separate and distinct and may result in one or more verdicts and judgments
judgmentA determination of the rights of the parties in an action or special proceeding. A judgment shall refer to and state the result of a verdict or decision, or recite the circumstances on which it is based
judgment rolla record of the judgment with the supporting papers
judicial hearing officer (JHO)a person who has served as a judge or justice of a court of record of the Unified Court System, and who no longer is serving in such capacity, except a person who was removed from a judicial position pursuant to Section 22 of Article VI of the Constitution
jurisdictionthe geographical, subject matter, and monetary limitations of a court
Personal jurisdiction- Directed to a specific person to impose a personal liability on him (usually the defendant).
Subject matter jurisdiction- Topic of consideration, thing in dispute, right claimed by one party against another
jurya prescribed number of persons selected according to law and sworn to make findings of fact
jury (advisory)a body of jurors impaneled to hear a case in which the parties have no right to a jury trial - the judge remains solely responsible for the findings and may accept or reject the jury's verdict
jury instructionsdirections given by the judge to the jury back to top
lachesthe failure to diligently assert a right, which results in a refusal to allow relief
legal ageEighteen (18) years of age. See CPLR Section 1206.
legal aidsystem by which legal services are rendered to those in financial need who cannot afford private counsel
liabilityan obligation to do, to eventually do, or to refrain from doing something; money owed; or according to law one's responsibility for his/her conduct; or one's responsibility for causing an injury
libera book used for keeping a record of specific documents or events having legal effect
liena claim upon the property of another as security for some debt
litigantParty to a legal action
ong form orderan order prepared by counsel for signature of the court (usually based on a memorandum decision) back to top
maintenancethe furnishing by one person to another the means of living, or food, clothing, shelter, etc., particularly where the legal relations of the parties is such that one is bound to support the other, as between parent and child or between spouses
material witnessperson whose testimony on some issue has been judicially determined as relevant and substantial
memorandum decisiona written opinion or decision of a court on a litigated question, giving the court's conclusion on factual and legal issues (this may constitute the order of the court if so stated)
memorandum opinionmemorandum in writing, which is a very brief statement of the reasons for a decision, without detailed explanation
military calendarTo hold in suspense an action that cannot reasonably be tried because a party or witness is in the military service.
minute bookA Court Clerk's Journal of Courtroom proceedings.
minutesa record of court proceedings kept by noting significant events
mistriala trial which has been terminated and declared void prior to the reaching of verdict due to extraordinary circumstance, serious prejudicial misconduct or hung jury - it does not result in a judgment for any party but merely indicates a failure of trial
moot(adj.) unsettled, undecided, not necessary to be decided
motionan oral or written request to the court made by a party for a ruling or order
movantthe party who initiates the motion back to top
natural personIndividual (does not include corporate entities)
negligenceconduct which falls below the standard established by law for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm
non seq.(Non sequitur): It does not follow
note of issuea document filed with the court placing a cause on the trial calendar
notice of entryA notice with an affidavit of service stating that the attached copy of an entered order or judgment has been served by a party on another party.
notice of petitionWritten notice of a petitioner that a hearing will be held in a court to determine the relief requested in an annexed petition.
nunc pro tunc(now for then) presently considered as if occurring at an earlier date; effective retroactively back to top
oatha swearing to the truth of a statement which, if made by one who knows it to be false, may subject one to a prosecution for perjury or other legal proceedings
opening statementthe first address of counsel prior to offering of evidence
oral proofevidence given by word of mouth; the oral testimony of a witness
orderan oral or written direction of a court or judge back to top
palimonyterm has meaning similar to `alimony' except that award, settlement or agreement arises out of non-marital relationship of parties (i.e., non-marital partners)
parcela tract or a plot of land
parta court room where specified business of a court is to be conducted by a judicial officer
partyPerson having a direct interest in a legal matter, transaction or proceeding.
peremptory challengethe challenge which may be used to reject a certain number of prospective jurors without assigning any reason
perjurythe act of lying or stating falsely under oath
petitiona formal written request to a court, which initiates a special proceeding
petitionerIn a special proceeding, one who commences a formal written application, requesting some action or relief, addressed to a court for determination. Also known as a plaintiff in a civil action
petit jurythe ordinary jury for the trial of a civil case (so called to distinguish it from the grand jury)
plaintiffthe party bringing a civil action
pleadingscomplaint or petition, answer, and reply
polling the jurya practice whereby the jurors are asked individually whether they assented, and still assent, to the verdict
power of attorneyinstrument authorizing one to act legally for another either generally or in a specified matter
precedentpreviously adjudged action or decision on same or similar point, serving as a rule or example for present guidance
proceedingthe succession of events constituting the process by which judicial action is invoked and utilized pursuant to procedure
precludeTo prevent or stop
processa legal means, such as a summons, used to subject a defendant in a lawsuit to the jurisdiction of the court; broadly, refers to all writs issued in the course of a legal proceeding
pro sefor oneself; in one's own behalf; in person; a pro se party is one who, without representation, acts as his/her own attorney
purgeTo atone for an offense, to submit to a court's mandate (i.e., to purge oneself of contempt of court) back to top
recuseTo disqualify oneself as a judge
redactto edit, revise
refereea person to whom a cause pending in a court is referred by the court to take testimony, hear the parties, and report thereon to the court, or to make a judicial determination - the referee is an officer exercising judicial powers and is an arm of the court for a specific purpose
remandto send a case back from an appellate court to the lower court from which it came, for further proceedings
remittiturlegal process by which an appellate court transmits to the court below the proceedings before it, together with its decision, for such further action and entry of judgment as is required by the decision of the appellate court
replevinan action brought for the owner of items to recover possession of those items when those items were wrongfully taken or are being wrongfully kept
replya plaintiff's response to a defendant's answer when the answer contains a counterclaim
res judicataa thing judicially acted upon or decided
respondentOne who formally answers the allegations stated in a petition which has been filed with the court. Also known as a defendant in a civil action
restore/ reinstate to calendarto reinstate the action to active inventory back to top
sanctiona penalty or punishment provided as a means of enforcing obedience to a law, rule or code; also, an authorization
satisfactionDischarge of a legal obligation, as in a "Satisfaction of Judgment."
sealto close a case file from public scrutiny - in instances of youthful offenders and acquittal, sealing orders are issued by the court to prevent the public from obtaining information on the cases
security for costsAn undertaking required by a court to cover the payment of costs if the judgment is against the depositor.
separationin matrimonial law, a cessation of cohabitation of husband and wife by mutual agreement, or in the case of "judicial separation," under the decree of a court
sequesterto separate, set apart, hold aside for safekeeping or awaiting some determination; jurors are sequestered when not permitted to return home until the case is closed
servicethe exhibition or delivery of a writ, notice, etc., officially notifying a person of some action or proceeding in which that person is concerned
short form orderan order prepared by the court
show causean order, decree, execution, etc., to appear as directed, and present to the court such reasons and considerations as one has to offer why it should not be confirmed, take effect, be executed, or as the case may be
sine dieWithout a date, as in an action being adjourned sine die. Legal process which commands a witness to appear and testify.
small claims assessment review (SCAR)filing by any person aggrieved by an assessment of a one, two or three family, owner occupied residential structure used for residential purposes (including condominiums) (NYS)
special mastera special master is an attorney appointed on an ad hoc basis to assist the court in hearing motions (NYS)
special proceedingsgeneral term for remedies or proceedings which are not ordinary actions, e.g., condemnation
special referee (or referee)the special referee has the authority to exercise judicial functions when assigned duties by the court to determine the following (1) to determine an issue (binding) (2) to perform an act (disclosure) (3) to hear and report - matrimonial actions may be included (NYS)
special terma court part set aside to hear specific types of cases
special verdicta special finding of the facts of a case by a jury leaving to the court the application of the law to the facts thus found
statute of limitationsa statute that declares that no actions of a specified kind be commenced after a specified period of time after the cause of action arose
staya stopping or suspension of procedure or execution by judicial or executive order
stipulationan agreement by attorneys on opposite sides of a case as to any matter pertaining to the proceedings or trial - most stipulations must be in writing
stpulation of settlementA formal agreement between litigants and/or their attorneys resolving their dispute.
sua sponteupon its own motion, initiation or will; without a prior request
subpoenaLegal process which commands a witness to appear and testify.
subpoena duces tecuma subpoena requiring a person to produce specified documents or records in a trial
subpoena (judicial)an order issued by the court to a person to attend court and give testimony
subpoena duces tecum (judicial)an order issued by the court requiring a person to produce specified documents or records in a trial
subsequent proceedingsAny proceeding or action taken with respect to a specific case after it has been filed with the court.
suitA legal action or proceeding.
sum certainLiquidated damages pursuant to contract, promissory note, law, etc.
summary judgmenta determination in an action on the grounds that there is no genuine issue of fact
summonsA form used to commence a civil action and acquire jurisdiction over a party
supplementary proceedingsfurther inquiry, under court jurisdiction, after entry of judgment, to determine means for enforcing the judgment against judgment debtor
suretyOne who is legally liable for the debt, default, or failure to carry out a duty of another. back to top
third-party actionA claim asserted by a defendant, styled a third-party plaintiff, against a person, styled a third-party defendant.
trial assignment part (TAP)that part of the court which assigns cases for trial (NYS)
testimonyan oral declaration made by a witness or party under oath
tortan injury or wrong committed, either with or without force, and either intentionally or negligently, to the person or property of another
transcriptthe official record of proceedings in a trial or hearing
transferthe removal of a cause from the jurisdiction of one court or judge to another by lawful authority
trialthe formal examination of a legal controversy in court so as to determine the issue
trial de novoA new trial back to top
undertakingDeposit of a sum of money or filing of a bond in court. back to top
vacateto set aside a previous action
veniretechnically, a writ summoning persons to court to act as jurors; popularly used as meaning the body of names thus summoned
venue1. Geographical place where some legal matter occurs or may be determined. 2. The geographical area within which a court has jurisdiction. It relates only to a place or territory within which either party may require a case to be tried. A defect in venue may be waived by the parties.
verdictthe determination of a jury on the facts
verificationconfirmation of the correctness, truth or authenticity of pleading, account or other paper by an affidavit or oath
voir direa questioning of prospective jurors by the attorneys, and, on application of any party, by the judge, to see if any of them should be disqualified or removed by challenge or examination back to top
waiveran intentional and voluntary relinquishment of some known right
warranta written order directing the arrest of a person issued by an authority - warrants are "issued," "executed" or "canceled"
with prejudicethe term, as applied to judgment of dismissal, is as conclusive of rights of parties as if action had been prosecuted to final adjudication adverse to the plaintiff
without prejudicea dismissal "without prejudice" allows a new suit to be brought on the same cause of action
witnessone who testifies to what he/she has seen, heard, or otherwise observed
writan order issuing from a court of justice and requiring the performance of a specified act, or giving authority and commission to have it done back to top
Black, Henry Campbell - Black's Law Dictionary. West Publishing Co., 1979.
Coughlin, George Gordon - Law for the Layman. Harper & Row, New York 1975.
Court Career Courses, 1980.
Gifis, Steven H. - Law Dictionary. Barron's Educational Series, Inc.,New York, 1975.
Shapiro, Irving - The New Dictionary of Legal Terms. Looseleaf Law Publication, Inc., 1984.
Glossary of Legal Terminology - Law and the Courts.
American Bar Association.
Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary. G. & C. Merriam Company. Springfield, Massachusetts, 1971.